The Russians shall not have Constantinople. So, in a sense, jingoism is nationalism taken to an extreme position with regards to foreign policy. While the song lyrics say it is set in "the land of San Domingo", no geographic nor anthropological accuracy is found nor intended in the silly lyrics, set in a generic "exotic" and "primitive" location. (also "Oh By Jingo! The form "by Gingo!" The previous year, Viscount Sherbrooke had applied the expression, then a popular schoolboy's oath, to the war excitement.
Britain never actually entered the war. The song was much imitated over the next decade. We've fought the Bear before, and while we're Britons true, to describe Buck. However, the word still surfaces with regularity. Oh By Gee! The word was coined in the 1870s, during an episode in Britain’s perennial conflicts with the Russian Empire, when a popular music hall song urging military action contained the phrase, “by Jingo.”. "Living Jingo" refers to a legend attached to St. Gengulphus (Jingo for short) that after his martyrdom by being hacked to pieces, the pieces animated and hopped out to accuse his murderer. The original US release of the album additionally features the phrase on the back cover, spoken by a group of dancers. From that position the Russians could, if they wanted, seek to block Britain’s vital trade routes with India.
If Russia triumphed and captured the city of Constantinople, it could create a number of serious problems for Britain. The story of how the expression “by jingo,” a British expression essentially meaning “by golly,” came to enter the vernacular of politics begins in the spring of 1877. "Oh By Jingo!" The song caught on and spread widely through the public. Martim de Albuquerque in his 1881 "Notes and Queries" mentions a 1679 printed usage of the expression. The headline, which read "M'Arthur Purges Japan of Jingoes In Public Office" described how the extreme militarists of Japan were being barred from participating in the postwar government. The term jingoism refers to a nation’s aggressive foreign policy which has been propelled by public opinion. (Nationalism can also carry negative connotations of excessive national pride to the point of bigotry and intolerance.). The phrase also appears in Chapter 16 of Robert Louis Stevenson's The Wrong Box when John recognizes his Uncle Joseph whom he had believed to be dead. ; sung in the I Love Lucy TV show (episode #102, Season 4, ep.  The OED attests the first appearance in 1694, in an English edition of the works of François Rabelais as a translation for the French par Dieu! You're the Only Girl for Me)," 1920-03-26, Victor record # 18666-A (accessed August 30, 2016, at. Public opinion in England seemed to settle on staying out of the conflict and remaining neutral, but that began to change in 1878. For example, an opinion columnist of the New York Times, Frank Bruni, referred to the jingoism of Donald Trump's foreign policy in a column published on October 2, 2018. Over time, the class element of the meaning faded away, and jingoism meant someone, from any social strata, who favored a very aggressive, and even bullying, foreign policy. The song was written in response to the surrender of Plevna to Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, by which the road to Constantinople was open. Jingoism would embrace an aspect of nationalism, the fierce loyalty to one’s own nation, but would also incorporate the idea of projecting a very aggressive foreign policy, and even the waging of war, on another nation. The public, viewed by the British political class as uneducated and badly informed on foreign policy, were mocked as “jingos.” The word, despite its peculiar roots, became a part of the language, and was periodically invoked to mean those crying for aggressive international action, including warfare, in any nation. ("by God!"). A claim that the term referred to Empress Jingū has been entirely dismissed. The song was featured in the Broadway show "Linger Longer Letty", and became one of the biggest Tin Pan Alley hits of the post-World War I era. The 1970 song "After All" by David Bowie, from the album The Man Who Sold the World, also makes prominent use of the expression "Oh by Jingo".
Origins have also been claimed for it in languages that would not have been very familiar in the British pub: in Basque, for example, Jainko or Jinko is a form of the word for "God". We have no men. Oh By Gee You're The Only Girl For Me"), is a 1919 novelty song by Albert Von Tilzer with lyrics by Lew Brown. The word had its period of greatest usage in the decades from the late 1870s to World War I, after which it tended to fade in importance.
(Oh! . A version of the story appears in the Ingoldsby Legends. When Benito Mussolini was threatening to invade Abyssinia in 1935, the British comic magazine Punch published a parody: We don't want you to fight but by Jingo if you do, The chorus of an 1878 song  by G. H. MacDermott (singer) and George William Hunt (songwriter) commonly sung in pubs and music halls of the Victorian era gave birth to the term "jingoism". The full expression is "By the living Jingo", substituting for the phrase "By the living God" (referring to the Christian belief that Jesus Christ rose from the dead). The song was performed by Betty Hutton in the film Incendiary Blonde (1945); by Debbie Reynolds and Bobby Van as a specialty number in the Esther Williams MGM vehicle, Skirts Ahoy! Definition and Examples. What Is Domestic Policy in US Government? By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, What Is Astroturfing in Politics? The British and the Russians had been rivals for years, with Britain at times invading Afghanistan to block Russian designs in India. Definition and Historical Perspective, What Is Appeasement? By Jingo! Partisans supporting a more aggressive policy began breaking up peace meetings, and in London’s music halls, the equivalent of vaudeville theaters, a popular song appeared that called for a stronger stance. The story of how the expression “by jingo,” a British expression essentially meaning “by golly,” came to enter the vernacular of politics begins in the spring of 1877. "Oh, By Jingo (Oh By Gee, You're the Only Girl for Me)", http://diglib.lib.utk.edu/utsmc/main.php?bid=1207, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oh_By_Jingo!&oldid=986026336, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 10:36. The term has never gone completely out of use, and is periodically mentioned to criticize actions seen as bullying or belligerent. Terry Pratchett directly references the original song in his Discworld book Jingo: We have no ships. Jingoism is sometimes equated with nationalism, but they have distinctly different meanings. We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too, Definition and Examples, Biography of Nikita Khrushchev, Cold War Era Soviet Leader, Causes of World War I and the Rise of Germany, "M'Arthur Purges Japan of Jingoes In Public Office", jingoism of Donald Trump's foreign policy. The expression "hey Jingo"/"hey Yingo" was also known in the vocabulary of illusionists and jugglers as a cue for magic appearance of objects (cf. Definition and Examples. What's this? Hey Jingo Sirs! A British fleet sent to the area helped apply pressure. A nationalist is someone who believes citizens owe their loyalty to their nation. The term was also later used to criticize the foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt. Please also be aware that other Betfair customers may have access to data that is faster and/or more accurate than the data shown on the Betfair site. Von Tilzer, Albert, "Oh By Jingo! What Is Jingoism? (You're The Only Girl For Me)", in University of Tennessee Library, Digital Collection, Sheet Music Collection, Young, Margaret, vocalist, "Oh! In its original usage, connected to the music hall song, a jingo would have been someone from the uneducated class, and the original usage carried the connotation that jingoism was derived from the passions of a mob. 2, "Mertz and Kurtz", October 11, 1954); and sung by Hugh Laurie in P. G. Wodehouse's Jeeves and Wooster (Season 4, ep. In the modern world, the term jingoism is invoked to mean any aggressive or bullying foreign policy. Martim de Albuquerque (1881) "Notes and Queries", "500 Best-Loved Song Lyrics", by Ronald Herder (1998), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=By_Jingo&oldid=918026334, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Under the article "Jingo", it says that the anonymous, This page was last edited on 26 September 2019, at 17:11.
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