, Other fungi affect the remainder of the plant.  After his death in 1598, his plants were moved by Basilius Besler to the gardens they had designed at Willibaldsburg, the bishop's palace at Eichstätt, Upper Bavaria.
 Infection with NYSV produces light or grayish green, or yellow stripes or mottles on the upper two-thirds of the leaf, which may be roughened or twisted. Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizopus nigricans) cause bulb soft rot and Sclerotinia bulborum, black slime disease.  Indigenous in Europe, the wild populations of the parent species had been known since antiquity. The bulbs develop from the inside, pushing the older layers outwards which become brown and dry, forming an outer shell, the tunic or skin. These new bulbs  Species of Rhizopus (e.g. Throughout history the scent of narcissi has been an important ingredient of perfumes, a quality that comes from essential oils rather than alkaloids.
In his Hortus Medicus (1588), the first catalogue of a German garden's plants, Joachim Camerarius the Younger states that nine different types of daffodils were represented in his garden in Nuremberg.
Pests include viruses, bacteria, and fungi as well as arthropods and gastropods. They regrow in the following year from brown-skinned ovoid bulbs with pronounced necks, and reach heights of 5–80 cm depending on the species. The waves beside them danced, but they
 These include the Narcissus common latent virus (NCLV, Narcissus mottling-associated virus),[Note 3] Narcissus latent virus (NLV, Narcissus mild mottle virus) which causes green mottling near leaf tips, Narcissus degeneration virus (NDV), Narcissus late season yellows virus (NLSYV) which occurs after flowering, streaking the leaves and stems, Narcissus mosaic virus, Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV, Narcissus yellow streak virus), Narcissus tip necrosis virus (NTNV) which produces necrosis of leaf tips after flowering and Narcissus white streak virus (NWSV).
 The Persian phrase نرگس شهلا (narges-e šahlâ, literally "a reddish-blue narcissus") is a well-known metonymy for the "eye(s) of a mistress" in the classical poetries of the Persian, Urdu, Ottoman Turkish, Azerbaijani and Chagatai languages; to this day also the vernacular names of some narcissus cultivars (for example, Shahla-ye Shiraz and Shahla-ye Kazerun). , Much of the variation lies in the definition of species. Prior to opening, the flower buds are enveloped and protected in a thin dry papery or membranous (scarious) spathe. Areas with higher rainfall and temperatures are more susceptible to diseases that attack the crops. Today narcissi are popular as cut flowers and as ornamental plants in private and public gardens.
The fruit consists of a dry capsule that splits (dehisces) releasing numerous black seeds. Pollination mechanism fall into three groups corresponding to floral morphology (see Description - Flowers). These bulbs contain pretazettine, an active antitumor compound..
 Another German source at this time was Peter Lauremberg who gives an account of the species known to him and their cultivation in his Apparatus plantarius: de plantis bulbosis et de plantis tuberosis (1632).. , A common classification system has been that of Fernandes  based on cytology, as modified by Blanchard (1990) and Mathew (2002). And dances with the Daffodils. , Production of both bulbs and cut flowers takes place in open fields in beds or ridges, often in the same field, allowing adaptation to changing market conditions. Their native habitats are very varied, with different elevations, bioclimatic areas and substrates, being found predominantly in open spaces ranging from low marshes to rocky hillsides and montane pastures, and including grassland, scrub, woods, river banks and rocky crevices. The ovary is inferior (below the floral parts) consisting of three chambers (trilocular).
They flash upon that inward eye I gaz'd – and gaz'd – but little thought
 However, texts on usage such as Garner and Fowler state that "narcissi" is the preferred form.
, Jan van Scorel: Madonna of the Daffodils with the Child and Donors, 1535, Vincent van Gogh: Undergrowth with Two Figures, 1890, Crucifixion, Westfälischer Meister c. 1415, In Chinese culture Narcissus tazetta subsp. In the 1990s narcissus bulb production was at 260 million, sixth in size after tulips, gladioli, irises, crocuses and lilies and in 2012 it was ranked third.
facts page. the stigma and fertilizes the ovules of the plant, , Acetylcholine esterase inhibition has attracted the most interest as a possible therapeutic intervention, with activity varying by a thousandfold between species, and the greatest activity seen in those that contain galantamine or epinorgalanthamine.
", "12. The fragments are disinfected and placed on nutrient media.  Yet the description given of daffodils by his sister, Dorothy is just as poetic, if not more so, just that her poetry was prose and appears almost an unconscious imitation of the first section of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (see Greek culture, above). The seeds of sections Jonquilla and Bulbocodium are wedge-shaped and matte black, while those of other sections are ovate and glossy black.  Section Pseudonarcissus, although widely naturalised is endemic to the Baetic Ranges of the southeastern Iberian peninsula..  Interest grew further when varieties that could be grown indoors became available, primarily the bunch flowered (multiple flower heads) N. tazetta (Polyanthus Narcissus). Aphids such as Macrosiphum euphorbiae can transmit viral diseases which affect the colour and shape of the leaves, as can nematodes. Relatively resistant forms include N. triandrus, N. tazetta and N.
fertilized ovule. September 1976, "Leaf scorch of Narcissus: progress report", "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", Lib. The name "daffodil" is derived from "affodell", a variant of asphodel.
The largest production cultivars are shown in Table II;.
carotovorum (bacterial soft rot). The narcissus is also a national flower symbolising the new year or Newroz in the Iranian culture. In the United Kingdom a total of 4100 ha were planted with bulbs, of which 3800 ha were Narcissi, the UK's most important bulb crop, much of which is for export, making this the largest global production centre, about half of the total production area. nobilis).  Plutarch refers to this in his Symposiacs as numbing the nerves causing a heaviness in the limbs. The most-studied alkaloids in this group are galantamine (galanthamine), lycorine, narciclasine, and pretazettine. The plural form of the common name "narcissus" has caused some confusion.  While most species flower in late winter to spring, five species are autumn flowering (N. broussonetii, N. cavanillesii, N. elegans, N. serotinus, N. How To Plant The Daffodils.
Extracts of Narcissus have demonstrated a number of potentially useful biological properties including antiviral, prophage induction, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antitumor, antimitotic, antiplatelet, hypotensive, emetic, acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, antifertility, antinociceptive, chronotropic, pheromone, plant growth inhibitor, and allelopathic.
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