gene mutation and chromosomal mutation pdf

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978 0 obj <>stream �F7i���hҿ��Ɇ#����l�I�@a7D3A�u�����k���h�� :'�Bq]����pޤ4�����������4��r���j~ڨl ��9��꼏4����9��:�I��9:���S����4�EȒ�0�C����Cp� �3��Bp;�ˆ�s�Ek�e&��|�4�l�#1�k���h�L�+"��4��.���Rj;��ք�A3�1`d��<9Bp�CH�0��+�*�$"n�A �I�n2� Chromosome Mutations - gross changes in chromosomes. %%EOF <>

A chromosome mutation is a change in the structure or arrangement of the chrom osomes w Numerical Changes { Euploidy -- … �H �a�� h����F`h�\0Bb%CZN5 %gq ��h9ͦ��� &�N����n9�bF�h�r8�B��Q��g�%�1��e&��� �3����!��sX*I�i@���Ȋ�AA�f4��4Z=&�%Fp��WZ��l���@e2��n�Lu�]^���(�L����BN1�^fsSm Mutations range from a change in a single nucleotide pair up to a change is vast regions of a chromosome. %���� Chromosomal mutations are detected by comparing the banding pattern of chromosomes. 2 0 obj The mutation concept as the ultimate source of evolution was first proposed in detail by Hugo DeVries3 and has been extensively researched ever since. %���� <> For example, in chromosomal mutations, an entire part of the chromosome (or the whole chromosome itself) can be duplicated, deleted, or moved to a different location. `[DQI���3�$��kL��L�B����7��踳I8p�����:�`�4��ˮH�u�.��}�6(�Dt4������S�Ӕ�������nT��4��p�q��5�,;�E}C���YO^�d.�>��"RL�W�8[B� ���2�Q�}Z�e�x�s���U�*Oa[�]ڢ�7��c�uH�3�[�VI);�z���t�� Rߎ��~cИ Y17ҭ,Ł���'U����{�*A�鄫H�G4V:kT�yh��e�c�t��2��y{��]�e���K¾Y�}�iǘ�x�-���-��\jۖ[nSz�]�1�c���6.��V]��� hi"�[6A��T��9�#8�2�*}�Ĥ. Q�y>�-���U!�Y+e\�;�s>0���t�ԡJS~�A���QR�Nσ���'{� r�)y�_�4���҃?b�`�L�����i1 Q���_�q�w@{\M�Y�J�����AE‡tϊ`���3�AN]�d=J��>��h endobj chromosomes. endobj Point mutations and frameshift mutations are a smaller-scale type of mutation that happens when single nucleotides are changed, inserted, or deleted. Chromosomal mutations are widely called as chromosomal aberrations. stream (a) A nonbanded metaphase grouping of chromosomes… These are grouped into two broad classes based open whether they alter the structure or number of chromosomes.

<>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Chromosome Mutations Definitions A mutation is any cha nge in the DNA. 3 0 obj stream Describe some common chromosomal mutations: inversions, deletions, duplications, fusions, fissions, and translocations. %PDF-1.2 ���ш�h.��a��\2 endstream endobj startxref >> << s9చ� 4 0 obj /Filter /LZWDecode 967 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[954 25]/Info 953 0 R/Length 72/Prev 365562/Root 955 0 R/Size 979/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream %PDF-1.5 %���� THE OCCURRENCE OF MUTATIONS In the nucleus of each eukaryote cell exists the genetic material packaged in chromosomes … In some karyotypes, the X chromosomes are placed to the right of the C group. Mutations which alter the chromosome structure, size or gene arrangement are chromosomal mutations. x��X[o�6~7��p�"�E�"��(�K�u@�1������)�&����w�[,�C�@��������y�,�4k����yӤ��L�n߮��դSS� W���p��~ �«N�f8��,����p0�āsH����}pЂB������>�j���0�w����pp���^ꏄ��+���"��{�����my�����#���p����,��JY]6*��m�p�6�O�^��I&�%I�d0�� 954 0 obj <> endobj 0 /Length 12 0 R h��Vko�6�+�������y�� PC�5�|Pl��ȁ���߹��#g��� �qL��}���H�G!E�I��P֡UBy�VZ#��X�P!҈:E��F%� �Z�Ĕ|Iqz��Uq��x(&gx9wS�u�x]��լ��F�z���8x11�RDb*��R�Y�������i�*�n/[���n>�(�M�j��iqrt4)7�����63��RG���^\�"�P�T�-cq�,atq�j��d��� Š)B������^~z�Z�˦|�co���F&��G�x�ή����u���.�JHl��~�P>o��R~���]��ߺ����16E��%�1nf�y�,��9l6����^oڣ�r�@���tno�n�vn[�w�ۊ������j3�r�o��X-�����A��Au� k4A�W‚����x�1� ���+\\��;/h+���k�wRD�i� �;�1�l���cr���"�B~�ґ;F>��P����%x�y�;�bn=l���p��[$@}%]� C6 lB���|�s��p %PDF-1.7 <>/Metadata 157 0 R/ViewerPreferences 158 0 R>> endstream endobj 955 0 obj <>/Metadata 82 0 R/Outlines 150 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 948 0 R/StructTreeRoot 169 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 956 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 957 0 obj <>stream �$#!7?�(�Q��_$��=p'��5_!�;�(��O���*�&�x} 0�����CvB)X� o,���ۿ��?��n�?S|�R|xr[�@F��ۉ�: ٰ�2h�����������Y�HW�ڲ�BD�- vZ\c���L&I��g��(r�\������OZ1��}}"���5|�M�+C}uׁnI��>���=��k ���=U��h-o�D����q]�ܶ �Z*v.T�͍N��9q�̖���u>���s./:��縌T� u.MO�}g�M��W�sϩtޝ�6k5�����ү�0W:N��}z� ������{����'� �II{N. Chromosomal mutations … Similar in size and shape to the G-group chromosomes, but does not have satellites. 11 0 obj All mutations … endobj Figure 15.7 Human Karyotypes—Banded and Nonbanded. h�b```�JN5``f`�sLaT`dbPT:-v������̼|˘K�0�2G�ݒ��Q�5Y�#1�8E�0Β���cʦ�J�#�YY��3�u�"7X�x$���'��b�Z �B�!lkVC�V��� u @"]::�4�r����gV��@��A��|6q��,b�S��`�4c�b��?�]r$0X�߁�300��^��/�4��$P �68 �֍2u�� FQQ

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