black names in white classrooms dissertation pdf

0000009252 00000 n, de Onís, C. M. (2017). 0000011004 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000006702 00000 n "A�H���~�� vE�=X��=�#9�W*H@�@9����b��s �]E]��g�L�f���p�E�����x2w�7�{S���7�C��¬V����ߚs0��z����_�*B������&u������H~?�����%o�/�̖99vI^�+r�dvd�d���c�c�c�c��ufǵ�r\�a-ǵ�r�t�t�t�t�t�t��g�+9���g]uyfzdz�{�{�{�{%kf���M�&p�r�9�a� G�,p:���g���Y�G�=�`��{$�#a]���u)�R�)ܔn Language that essentializes or reifies race is strongly discouraged and is generally considered inappropriate. The 50 Native Americans (25 Choctaw, 15 Hopi, and 10 Seminole) represented… 0000107770 00000 n To refer to non-White racial and ethnic groups collectively, use terms such as “people of color” or “underrepresented groups” rather than “minorities.” The use of “minority” may be viewed pejoratively because it is usually equated with being less than, oppressed, or deficient in comparison with the majority (i.e., White people). 0000085664 00000 n �O�

0000004713 00000 n Participants were 200 Hispanics/Latinos. Another reason is that designations can become dated over time and may hold negative connotations. 0000004611 00000 n When describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specific and sensitive to issues of labeling as described in general principles for reducing bias. scholar with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870 (1896), and The Philadelphia Negro The Souls of Black …

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chalks so as to make the differences prominent. Furthermore, in the classroom, writing board is often black in colour so that white colour will be easily visible and now with the advent of white boards more colours can be used on the board.

Nonparallel designations (e.g., “African Americans and Whites,” “Asian Americans and Black Americans”) should be avoided because one group is described by color, whereas the other group is not. Specify region or nation of origin when possible to avoid the impression that all people of African descent have the same cultural background, family history, or family experiences. One of her best-known novels Kindred, published in 1979, tells the story of a Black woman who must travel back in time in order to save her own life by saving a white, slaveholding ancestor. 0000153735 00000 n

0000012130 00000 n Preferred: %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000043314 00000 n Problematic: h�b```b``�������A��؀�, ���4�����tn���-��:���|ƀ(�L���j������%�11�x�R���ɗg��9� 0000007219 00000 n ���`���bY��o�Ϸ��=7cQ����e Terms such as “economically marginalized” and “economically exploited” may also be used rather than “underprivileged.” Whenever possible, use more specific terms (e.g., schools with majority Black populations that are underfunded) or refer to discrimination or systematic oppression as a whole. “Non-White” implies a standard of comparison and is imprecise. 0000002587 00000 n 0000001696 00000 n the Mexican American professor. If people belong to multiple racial or ethnic groups, the names of the specific groups are capitalized, but the terms “multiracial,” “biracial,” “multi-ethnic,” and so on are lowercase.

Do not use hyphens in multiword names, even if the names act as unit modifiers (e.g., write “Asian American participants,” not “Asian-American participants”). My family was middle-class, and we lived in a Black suburban neighborhood, but I attended inner-city schools. Comment: Use parallel terms, especially in table labels. For example, people might identify as Latino or another ethnicity.

0000174588 00000 n H�\��n�0����l/*��L+!�4�J��mv���"mr�E�~g|P�Z$�o��>�v���b�q��~��1�_�k�=��LQ�a�5K����&��vY�y��i�����%���f���d����N���v�h��u������m���e�����;{�%��n���r{��_���2�����/s��؅�7M.Wk�w�Z����wǐ��GMS�����S^;ɟ%/�K�\�1�a�!�4�W:�*��r .�X�w`����VO����(A~��q�-�45֪u��W�nݛ2֪u-�OR�-���%���Z������)3����ZC��Tڀ7��٨Z�E�I�h= �"�����e�d������3�-�'�O�OV���>>Y}2|J�f[�J�N�{�����s��Rk�����y����6 ���i endstream endobj 353 0 obj <> endobj 354 0 obj <> endobj 355 0 obj <>stream To provide more specificity, “Asian origin” may be divided regionally, for example, into South Asia (including most of India and countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal), Southeast Asia (including the eastern parts of India and countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines), and East Asia (including countries such as China, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea and North Korea, and Taiwan). It is problematic to group “Asian” and “Asian American” as if they are synonymous. 0000007321 00000 n As with all discussions of race and ethnicity, it is preferable to be more specific about regional (e.g., Southern European, Scandinavian) or national (e.g., Italian, Irish, Swedish, French, Polish) origin when possible.

0000009759 00000 n For example, phrases such as “the Black race” and “the White race” are essentialist in nature, portray human groups monolithically, and often perpetuate stereotypes. Problematic: Problematic: Black money can be totally eliminated if a new tax system called TOP Tax system is adopted and implemented by all nations.

0000010690 00000 n Depending on the context of the sentence, ethnic identity may not be relevant and therefore should not be mentioned. ), Chicano, or another related designation, authors should consult with their participants to determine the appropriate choice.

At grade 4, the White-Black achievement gap in mathematics achievement scores narrowed from 32 points in 1990 to .

0000006123 00000 n For example, in the 2008–2009 academic year, Black stu-dents in North Carolina public schools were suspended at rates significantly higher than White Lowered expectations in the classroom may result Terms used to refer to racial and ethnic groups continue to change over time. people of color 0000020983 00000 n 0000028097 00000 n People of African descent have widely varied cultural backgrounds, family histories, and family experiences. American Psychological Association. 0000003366 00000 n When it is necessary to compare a dominant racial group with a nondominant racial group, use a modifier like “racial,” “ethnic,” or “racial-ethnic.” Otherwise, other terms may be preferred, such as “people of color” to refer to non-White racial and ethnic groups or “underrepresented people.”, Problematic: The use of the term “Caucasian” as an alternative to “White” or “European” is discouraged because it originated as a way of classifying White people as a race to be favorably compared with other races.

0000174666 00000 n

Do not assume that members of minority groups are underprivileged; underprivileged means having less money, education, resources, and so forth than the other people in a society and may refer to individuals or subgroups in any racial or ethnic group. “Indian” usually refers to people from India.

V�3�@`B@�K�N1��K���[X�\yvq��"��6n- ������|��ڕ5���jk�%��á�aө. %PDF-1.6 %���� underrepresented people, underrepresented groups, Comment: “Minority” is usually equated with being less than, oppressed, and deficient in comparison with the majority. If a distinction is needed between the dominant racial group and nondominant racial groups, use a modifier (e.g., “ethnic,” “racial”) when using the word “minority” (e.g., ethnic minority, racial minority, racial-ethnic minority). Problematic: H�\�ݎ�0����ܽX���!Q�J\�G�}���$Q�}��Dl�H�g���g{���C��&�> �1�����n�}j�9�K�'yaڮ��(�6�zLRM>>ns���T�I���<=�˶N�5I�Mm���b^~펯&=���O��~6��lL�j�����`Ҙ�vh�{7?�4�c���L�0�І�X7a��KH�L������$�o���VL;�����T�'��e"Y��F��3A���׈?��Y�W������)����WԘ[�����A5k蠚�:$UI�>eN�C��P�����uK�-Y�Dݒ��!�,=-�u-�Z�[�[��b-�����������B6�0W�+�� In North America, the collective terms “Native American” and “Native North American” are acceptable (and may be preferred to “American Indian”). 0000112608 00000 n All participants were European American. 0000051038 00000 n

Whenever possible, use the racial and/or ethnic terms that your participants themselves use. When you are writing, you need to follow general principles to ensure that your language is free of bias. 6�/��S��I�)����:&��`���L�g`�� � ߼: -�EqbI�`i�BӖ��8��1Ld�8���������YW�EO�f���~2�G�}�̱�] racial minority students, ethnic minority students, racial-ethnic minority students Instead, use “Blacks and Whites” or “African Americans and European Americans” for the former example and “Asian Americans and African Americans” for the latter example. Comment: “Orientals” is considered pejorative; use “Asian” for people from Asia, “Asian American” for people of Asian descent in North America, or be more specific by providing nation and region of origin (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, etc.). When writing about people of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) descent, state the nation of origin (e.g., Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel) when possible.

racial minorities, ethnic minorities, racial-ethnic minorities 347 0 obj <> endobj xref 347 70 0000000016 00000 n 0000095320 00000 n

For information on citing the Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples as well as the capitalization of terms related to Indigenous Peoples, see Section 8.9 of the Publication Manual.

0000110696 00000 n 0000105686 00000 n 0000167650 00000 n Be clear about whether you are referring to a racial group or to an ethnic group. 0000160712 00000 n have different meanings; ask participants to self-identify with a term and use a precise nationality if possible. 0000009366 00000 n For example, instead of categorizing participants as Asian American or Hispanic American, you could use more specific labels that identify their nation or region of origin, such as Japanese American or Cuban American.

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